198 Methods of Nonviolent Action

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Also check out The Politics of Nonviolent Action Part One / Part Two / Part Three.

THE METHODS OF NONVIOLENT PROTEST AND PERSUASION

Formal Statements

Communications with a Wider Audience

Group Representations

Symbolic Public Acts

Pressures on Individuals

Drama and Music

Processions

Honoring the Dead

Public Assemblies

Withdrawal and Renunciation

THE METHODS OF SOCIAL NONCOOPERATION

Ostracism of Persons

Noncooperation with Social Events, Customs, and Institutions

Withdrawal from the Social System

THE METHODS OF ECONOMIC NONCOOPERATION: (1) ECONOMIC BOYCOTTS

Actions by Consumers

Action by Workers and Producers

Action by Middlemen

  • Suppliers’ and handlers’ boycott

Action by Owners and Management

  • Traders’ boycott
  • Refusal to let or sell property
  • Lockout
  • Refusal of industrial assistance
  • Merchants’ “general strike”

Action by Holders of Financial Resources

  • Withdrawal of bank deposits
  • Refusal to pay fees, dues, and assessments
  • Refusal to pay debts or interest
  • Severance of funds and credit
  • Revenue refusal
  • Refusal of a government’s money

Action by Governments

  • Domestic embargo
  • Blacklisting of traders
  • International sellers’ embargo
  • International buyers’ embargo
  • International trade embargo

THE METHODS OF ECONOMIC NONCOOPERATION: (2)THE STRIKE

Symbolic Strikes

  • Protest strike
  • Quickie walkout (lightning strike)

Agricultural Strikes

  • Peasant strike
  • Farm Workers’ strike

Strikes by Special Groups

  • Refusal of impressed labor
  • Prisoners’ strike
  • Craft strike
  • Professional strike

Ordinary Industrial Strikes

  • Establishment strike
  • Industry strike
  • Sympathetic strike

Restricted Strikes

  • Detailed strike
  • Bumper strike
  • Slowdown strike
  • Working-to-rule strike
  • Reporting “sick” (sick-in)
  • Strike by resignation
  • Limited strike
  • Selective strike

Multi-Industry Strikes

  • Generalized strike
  • General strike

Combination of Strikes and Economic Closures

  • Hartal
  • Economic shutdown

THE METHODS OF POLITICAL NONCOOPERATION

Rejection of Authority

  • Withholding or withdrawal of allegiance
  • Refusal of public support
  • Literature and speeches advocating resistance

Citizens’ Noncooperation with Government

  • Boycott of legislative bodies
  • Boycott of elections
  • Boycott of government employment and positions
  • Boycott of government depts., agencies, and other bodies
  • Withdrawal from government educational institutions
  • Boycott of government-supported organizations
  • Refusal of assistance to enforcement agents
  • Removal of own signs and placemarks
  • Refusal to accept appointed officials
  • Refusal to dissolve existing institutions

Citizens’ Alternatives to Obedience

  • Reluctant and slow compliance
  • Nonobedience in absence of direct supervision
  • Popular nonobedience
  • Disguised disobedience
  • Refusal of an assemblage or meeting to disperse
  • Sitdown
  • Noncooperation with conscription and deportation
  • Hiding, escape, and false identities
  • Civil disobedience of “illegitimate” laws

Action by Government Personnel

  • Selective refusal of assistance by government aides
  • Blocking of lines of command and information
  • Stalling and obstruction
  • General administrative noncooperation
  • Judicial noncooperation
  • Deliberate inefficiency and selective noncooperation by enforcement agents
  • Mutiny

Domestic Governmental Action

  • Quasi-legal evasions and delays
  • Noncooperation by constituent governmental units

International Governmental Action

  • Changes in diplomatic and other representations
  • Delay and cancellation of diplomatic events
  • Withholding of diplomatic recognition
  • Severance of diplomatic relations
  • Withdrawal from international organizations
  • Refusal of membership in international bodies
  • Expulsion from international organizations

THE METHODS OF NONVIOLENT INTERVENTION

Psychological Intervention

  • Self-exposure to the elements
  • The fast: Fast of moral pressure
  • The fast: Hunger strike
  • The fast: Satyagrahic fast
  • Reverse trial
  • Nonviolent harassment

Physical Intervention

  • Sit-in
  • Stand-in
  • Ride-in
  • Wade-in
  • Mill-in
  • Pray-in
  • Nonviolent raids
  • Nonviolent air raids
  • Nonviolent invasion
  • Nonviolent interjection
  • Nonviolent obstruction
  • Nonviolent occupation

Social Intervention

  • Establishing new social patterns
  • Overloading of facilities
  • Stall-in
  • Speak-in
  • Guerrilla theater
  • Alternative social institutions
  • Alternative communication system

Economic Intervention

  • Reverse strike
  • Stay-in strike
  • Nonviolent land seizure
  • Defiance of blockades
  • Politically motivated counterfeiting
  • Preclusive purchasing
  • Seizure of assets
  • Dumping
  • Selective patronage
  • Alternative markets
  • Alternative transportation systems
  • Alternative economic institutions

Political Intervention

These methods were compiled by Dr. Gene Sharp and first published in his 1973 book, The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Vol. 2: The Methods of Nonviolent Action. (Boston: Porter Sargent Publishers, 1973). The book outlines each method and gives information about its historical use.

Also check out The Politics of Nonviolent Action Part One / Part Two / Part Three.

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